Order online from a trusted local Northern Virginia, Washington, DC area printer

Glossary of Terms

Glossary Of Terms

We take great pride in making our clients feel confident about their jobs during the production process. To help you gain a better understanding of what’s happening to your project, we’ve compiled a glossary of printing, copying and mailing terms that we commonly use in our industry.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X
  • AA or AC

    Author's Alterations or Author's Correction.

  • Accordion Fold

    A type of paper folding in which each fold runs in the opposite direction to the previous fold creating a pleated or accordion effect.

  • Acetate

    A transparent or translucent plastic sheet material of a variety of colors, used as a basis for artwork and overlays.

  • Adjustments

    A process of altering the copy to reproduce desired product.

  • Agate

    A type size of 5 1/2 points. Reference, agate line.

  • Airbrush

    A compressed air tool that dispenses a fine mist of paint or ink; used in illustration and photo retouching.

  • Alignment

    The condition of type and or art materials as they level up on a horizontal or vertical line.

  • Alley

    A term for a random, coincidental path or a row of white space within a segment of copy.

  • American Paper Institute

    An organization that correlates all paper related information.

  • Arms

    Those elements of letters that branch out from the stem of a letter, such as: "K" and "Y".

  • Art Work

    Any materials or images that are prepared for graphic reproduction.

  • Art-Lined Envelope

    An envelope that is lined with an extra fine paper; can be colored or patterned.

  • Artwork

    All illustrated material, ornamentation, photos and charts etc., that is prepared for reproduction.

  • Ascender

    Any part of a lower case letter which rises above the main body of the letter such as in "d", "b" and "h".

  • Author's Alterations (AA's)

    Changes made after composition stage where customer is responsible for additional charges.

  • Automation Compatible

    The ability of a mailing piece to be processed and sorted by machine instead of by hand. The result is lower postage costs and faster delivery.

  • Back To Back

    Print applied to both sides of a sheet of paper.

  • Background

    That portion of a photograph or line art drawing that appears furthest from the eye; the surface upon which the main image is superimposed.

  • Banker's Flap Envelope

    Also called wallet flap; the wallet flap has more rounded flap edges.

  • Banner

    The primary headline usually spanning the entire width of a page.

  • Bar Codes

    Barcodes are a series of vertical bars that are added to a mailing piece that represent the correct delivery adrress information. These barcodes are ready by machines that process mail and pinpoint the delivery location at the USPS.

  • Base Sheets

    Base sheets are preprinted shells that will be used later. Base sheets are large quantity orders usually requested for newsletters and business cards in one or more ink colors. Base sheets save you money because the additional information can be printed in only one color ink or duplicated on a copier.

  • Basic Size

    This term refers to a standard size of paper stock; even though the required size may be smaller or larger.

  • Basis Weight

    Basis or basic weight refers to the weight, in pounds, of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to a given standard size for that particular paper grade.

  • BF

    An abbreviation for boldface, used to determine where boldface copy is to be used. Reference, boldface.

  • Binder's Board

    A heavy paperboard with a cloth covering that is used for hardback binding of books.

  • Binding

    Various methods of securing folded sections together and or fastening them to a cover, to form single copies of a book.

  • Black Out

    Also referred to as black patch; a piece of masking material which is used in layout to mask an area leaving a window into which another element can be stripped.

  • Blanket

    On offset presses a fabric-reinforced sheet of rubber to transfer the impression from the plate onto the paper.

  • Bleed

    Extra ink area that crosses trim line, used to allow for variations that occur when the reproduction is trimmed or die-cut.

  • Blind Emboss

    A design or bas relief impression that is made without using inks or metal foils.

  • Blind Embossing

    Embossed forms that are not inked, or gold leafed.

  • Block

    Illustrations or line art etched onto zinc or copper plates and used in letterpress printing.

  • Blocking Out

    To mask a section of an art layout before reproduction.

  • Blue-Line

    Photographic proof made from flats for checking accuracy, layout and imposition before plates are made. Also known as a dylux.

  • Body

    The main shank or portion of the letter character other than the ascenders and descenders. Also: A term used to define the thickness or viscosity of printer's ink.

  • Body Size

    The point size of a particular type character.

  • Boiler Plate

    Repetitive blocks of type that are picked up and included routinely without recreating them.

  • Boldface

    Any type that has a heavier black stroke that makes it more conspicuous.

  • Bond

    A grade of durable writing, printing and typing paper that has a standard size of 17x22 inches.

  • Book

    A general classification to describe papers used to print books; its standard size is 25x38 inches. A printed work which contains more than 64 pages.

  • Bounce 1

    A registration problem, usually on copiers, where the image appears to bounce back and forth. A bounce usually occurs in one direction depending on how the paper is passing through the machine. This is usually accented by card stock (especially if it's over the machine's spec). When a customer refuses a job for whatever reason.

  • Break For Color

    In layout design, the term for dividing or separating the art and copy elements into single color paste-up sheets.

  • BRM Business Reply Mail

    A domestic service offered by the USPS that allows pieces bearing a specific address or label format with a permit number to be mailed with prepayment of postage. Tyler can help you obtain your BRM permit from the USPS.

  • Brochure

    A pamphlet that is bound in booklet form.

  • Bulk

    A term given to paper to describe its thickness relative to its weight.

  • Bullet

    A boldface square or dot used before a sentence to emphasize its importance.

  • Burn

    A term used in plate making to describe the amount of plate exposure time.

  • Camera Ready

    A term given to any copy, artwork etc., that is prepared for photographic reproduction.

  • Caps & Lower Case

    Instructions in the typesetting process that indicate the use of a capital letter to start a sentence and the rest of the letters in lower case.

  • Caps & Small Caps

    Two sizes of capital letters made in one size of type.

  • Carbonate Paper

    A chemical pulp paper (calcium carbonate), used mostly for the printing of magazines.

  • Carbonless or NCR Paper

    Paper that is coated with chemicals to produce copies without carbon in between the sheets.

  • Case Binding

    Books bound using hard board (case) covers.

  • CASS

    CASS stands for Coding Accuracy Support System which is a service to improve the accuracy of addressing information including zip codes, carrier route data and more. The USPS requires CASS reports for discount mailings.

  • CD Burning

    A process of copying computer file(s) to a cd.

  • CMYK

    CMKY is for four color process printing. It is the term of the inks used for that type of printing. Cyan, Megenta, Yellow and Black inks are used to create all ink colors.

  • Coarse Screen

    Halftone screens commonly used in newsprint; up to 85 lines per inch.

  • Coated (Paper)

    Paper coated with clay, white pigments and a binder. Better for printing because there is less picking.

  • Coated Stock

    Any paper that has a mineral coating applied after the paper is made, giving the paper a smoother finish.

  • Collate

    To gather sheets or signatures together in their correct order. (see Gather)

  • Collating Marks

    Black step-marks printed on the back of folded sheets, to facilitate collating and checking of the sequence of book signatures.

  • Color Separating

    The processes of separating the primary color components for printing.

  • Color Transparency

    Transparent film containing a positive photographic color image.

  • Column Gutter

    Space between two or more columns of type on one page.

  • Compose

    Compose is to set copy into type.

  • Condensed Type

    A narrow, elongated type face.

  • Contact Print

    A print made from contact of a sensitive surface to a negative or positive photograph.

  • Contrast

    The degree of tonal separation or gradation in the range from black to white.

  • Copy

    Refers to any typewritten material, art, photos etc., to be used for the printing process.

  • Copyright

    A copyright prevents use of material(s) without the permission from the originator.

  • Corner Marks

    Marks on a final printed sheet that indicate the trim lines or register indicators.

  • Cover or Card Stock

    A stiff rigid paper used for postcards, manual covers, table tents, pamphlets etc.

  • Cracking

    Delamination.

  • Crop

    To eliminate a portion of the art or copy as indicated by crop marks.

  • Crop Mark

    Markings at edges of original or on guide sheet to indicate the area desired in reproduction with negative or plate trimmed (cropped) at the markings.

  • Curl

    Not lying flat and tending to form into cylindrical or wavy shapes. A term to describe the differences of either side of a sheet relative to coatings, absorbency etc.; the concave side is the curl side.

  • Cutter

    Machine for accurately cutting stacks of paper to desired dimensions...can also be used to crease. Also trims out final bound books' top size (soft cover).

  • Cutting Die

    Sharp edged device, usually made of steel, to cut paper, cardboard, etc., on a printing press.

  • Deduplicating

    Deduplicating (or Deduping) is a preocess which identifies duplicate records by name and/or address in a mailing list and removes them if desired. The process will almost always save you money.

  • Delete

    An instruction given to remove an element from a layout.

  • Densitometer

    An optical device used by printers and photographers to measure and control the density of color.

  • Density

    The degree of tone, weight of darkness or color within a photo or reproduction; measurable by the densitometer. Reference, densitometer.

  • Density

    The lay of paper fibers relative to tightness or looseness which affects the bulk, the absorbency and the finish of the paper.

  • Descender

    A term that describes that portion of lower case letters which extends below the main body of the letter, as in "p".

  • Design

    Design is to create an image or product which is to be reproduced.

  • Die

    Design, letters or shapes, cut into metal (mostly brass) for stamping book covers or embossing. An engraved stamp used for impressing an image or design.

  • Die Cutting

    A method of using sharp steel ruled stamps or rollers to cut various shapes i.e. labels, boxes, image shapes, either post press or in line. The process of cutting paper in a shape or design by the use of a wooden die or block in which are positioned steel rules in the shape of the desired pattern.

  • Digital Proof

    Color separation data is digitally stored and then exposed to color photographic paper creating a picture of the final product before it is actually printed.

  • Dot

    The smallest individual element of a halftone.

  • DPI

    DPI is dots per inch.

  • Drier

    A term that describes any additives to ink which encourages the drying process.

  • Drill

    The actual drilling of holes into paper for ring or comb binding.

  • Dry Mount

    Pasting with heat sensitive adhesives.

  • Dull Finish

    Any matte finished paper.

  • Dummy

    A term used to describe the preliminary assemblage of copy and art elements to be reproduced in the desired finished product; also called a comp.

  • Dummy Model

    Resembling finished piece in every respect except that the pages and cover are blank, used by the designer as a final check on the appearance and +feel+ of the book as a guide for the size and position of elements on the jacket.

  • Duotone

    Color reproduction from monochrome original. Keyplate usually printed in dark color for detail, second plate printed in light flat tints. A two-color halftone reproduction generated from a one-color photo.

  • Duplex Paper

    Paper which has a different color or finish on each side.

  • Electronic Composition

    The assembly of characters into words, lines and paragraphs of text or body matter with graphic elements in page layout form in digital format for reproduction by printing.

  • Electronic Proof

    A process of generating a prepress proof in which paper is electronically exposed to the color separation negatives; the paper is passed through the electrically charged pigmented toners, which adhere electrostatically, resulting in the finished proof.

  • Em

    A unit of measurement equaling 12 points or 4.5mm.

  • Embossing

    To raise in relief a design or letters already printed on card stock or heavy paper by an uninked block or die. In rubber and plastic plate making the process is usually done by heat.

  • Emulsion

    A light sensitive substance used as a coating for film; made from a silver halide compound. This side should face the lens when the film is exposed.

  • Encapsuiated PostScript

    An image description format. EPS transulates graphics and text into discriptions to a printer of how to draw them. The font and picturees themselves need not be loaded into the printer, they've been "encapsulated" into the EPS code

  • Endorsement Service

    Endorsements are tools that allow mailers to keep track of customers when they change locations. Four key endorsements may instruct the USPS to return the undeliverable mail to you, forward it, provide you with a copy of the address change, or a combination off all services. USPS fees do apply to some of these services.

  • Engraving

    A printing process whereby images such as copy or art are etched onto a plate. When ink is applied, these etched areas act as small wells to hold the ink; paper is forced against this die and the ink is lifted out of the etched areas creating raised images on the paper.

  • Estimate

    The form used by the printer to calculate the project for the print buyer. This form contains the basic parameters of the project including size, quantity, colors, bleeds, photos etc.

  • F&G

    A term in the binding process referring to folding and gathering.

  • Fan Fold

    Paper folding that emulates an accordion or fan, the folds being alternating and parallel.

  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

    File Transfer Protocol (FTP): The Standard method of transferrring files using TCP/IP. FTP allows you to ransfer files between dissimilar computers, with preservation of binary data, and optional translation of text file formats. For instructions on how to send us files, press the send files button at the top of the page.

  • Film

    Film is a special paper which the reproductive image is captured. We also call film negatives.

  • Finish (Paper)

    Dull - (low gloss) also matte or matte gloss.

  • Fit

    The registration of items within a given page.

  • Foils

    Papers that have a surface resembling metal.

  • Fold Marks

    Markings at top edges that show where folds should occur.

  • Folder

    Machine used to fold signatures down into sections.

  • Folio or Page Number

    Number of page at top or bottom either centered, flushed left or flushed right often with running headline.

  • Font

    The characters which make up a complete typeface and size.

  • French Fold(er)

    Folder with printing on one side so that when folded once in each direction, the printing on outside of the folds.

  • Galley

    (old) flat oblong tray into which composed type matter is put and kept until made up into pages in the forme. Also a similar tray on a slug composing machine which receives the slugs as they are ejected. Also a long column of composed text matter

  • Galley Proof

    A proof of text copy before it is pasted into position for printing.

  • Galley Slave

    Old term for compositor.

  • Gamut

    Every color combination that is possible to produce with a given set of colorants on a given device or system.

  • Gang

    Group of frames or impositions in the same form of different jobs arranged and positioned to be printed together.

  • Gang Run

    Many low cost printers of four color commercial printing "gang run" to reduce costs. We Do Not Gang Run. Gang run produces inconsistent color and often does not match the color proof submitted to the client resulting in dissatisfaction and often rejection when the final job is received by the client.

    When a printer gang runs he puts one job behind the other on the same press sheet. He is ganging up jobs to save costs. The problem arises when the front job requires more of one color (i.e. cyan) and the job behinds it requires less cyan. The pressman has to go somewhere in the middle and both jobs will not match the proofs submitted to the client. We owe our high reputation to the fact that We Do Not Gang Run.

    One tof the way to determine if a printer gang runs is to ask "Do you guarantee to match the color proof?" If there is any equivication in the answer it is very likely he gang runs jobs. We Guarantee To Match The Color Proof.

  • Ganging

    The bundling of two or more different printing projects on the same sheet of paper.

  • Gate Fold

    A gate fold is two parallel folds that do not overlap and open up like a gate.

  • Gather

    To assemble or collect sections into single copies of complete books for binding.

  • Gathering

    Assembling sheets of paper and signatures into their proper sequence; collating.

  • Ghosting

    Marring a print by the placement of an image of work printed on the reverse side which has interfered with its drying so that differences in the trapping frame colors or glass variations are apparent.

  • Gilding

    Sticking on gold leaf to edges of books with a liquid agent and made permanent with burnishing tools.

  • Glassine

    A strong transparent paper.

  • Gloss Ink

    Quick drying oil based inks with low penetration qualities, used on coated stock.

  • Gloss Paper

    Gloss paper is paper with a clay coating that has been calendared to a shiny finish.

  • Glyphic

    A carved as opposed to scripted typeface.

  • Goldenrod

    An orange colored paper with gridlines, used to assemble materials for exposure for platemaking.

  • Graduated Screen

    An area of image where halftone dots range continuously from one density to another.

  • Grain

    Direction of fibers in a sheet of paper governing paper properties such as increased size changes with relative humidity, across the grain, and better folding properties along the grain.

  • Grained Paper

    A paper embossed to resemble various textures, such as leather, alligator, wood, etc.

  • Gripper

    A series of metal fingers that hold each sheet of paper as it passes through the various stages of the printing process.

  • Gripper Edge

    The grippers of the printing press move the paper through the press by holding onto the leading edge of the sheet; this edge is the gripper edge.

  • Gumming

    The application of gum arabic to the non printing areas of a plate.

  • Gutter

    Space between pages in the printing frame of a book, or inside margin towards the back or binding edge. The blank space or margin between the type page and the binding of a book.

  • Hairline register

    Printing registration that lies within the range of plus or minus one half row of dots. It is the thinnest of the standard printers' rules.

  • Halftone

    Tone graduated image composed of varying sized dots or lines, with equidistant centers.

  • Halftone Paper

    A high finish paper that is ideal for halftone printing.

  • Halftone Screen

    A sheet of film or glass containing ruled right-angled lines, used to translate the full tone of a photo to the halftone dot image required for printing.

  • Hard Dot

    The effect in a photograph where a dot has such a small degree of halation that the dot shows quite sharp.

  • Head Margin

    That space which lies between the top of the printed copy and the trimmed edge.

  • Hickies

    Imperfections in presswork due to dirt on press, trapping errors, etc.

  • High Bulk Paper

    Paper stock that is comparatively thick in relation to its basis weight.

  • Highlights

    The lightest tones of a photo, printed halftone or illustration. In the finished halftone, these highlights are represented by the finest dots.

  • Hot melt

    An adhesive used in the binding process, which requires heat for application.

  • House Sheet

    This is a term that refers to a paper that a printer keeps on hand in his shop.

  • IBC

    Inside back cover.

  • IFC

    Inside front cover.

  • Image Area

    That portion of the printing plate that carries the ink and prints on paper.

  • Image Setter

    High resolution, large format device for producing film from electronically generated page layouts.

  • Imposition

    Arrangement of pages so that they print correctly on a press sheet, and the pages are in proper order when the sheets are folded.

  • Impression

    Product resulting from one cycle of printing machine. The pressure of the image carrier, whether it be the type, plate or blanket, when it contacts the paper.

  • Index Bristol

    A relatively thick paper stock; basis size---25 1/2 x 30 1/2.

  • Indicia

    Indicia is a imprinted designation on mail that denotes postage payment.

  • Indicia

    Markings pre-printed on mailing envelopes to replace the stamp.

  • Ink Fountain

    The device which stores and meters ink to the inking rollers.

  • Ink Setting

    The inertial resistance to flow that occurs to ink as soon as it is printed.

  • Inkometer

    A device used to measure the tack of ink.

  • Inserts

    Inserts are extra printed papges that are inserted loosely either by hand or machine into printed pieces or envelopes.

  • Inserts

    Extra printed pages inserted loosely into printed pieces.

  • Interleaves

    Extra blank pages inserted loosely into book after printing.

  • Invoice Number

    An invoice number is assigned to all completed jobs. This number is used for record keeping purposes.

  • Italic

    Text that is used to denote emphasis by slanting the type body forward.

  • Jacket

    The paper cover sometimes called the "dust cover" of a hardbound book.

  • Job Number

    A number assigned to a printing project used for job tracking. Also used to retrieve old jobs for reorder, reprints or reworking by customer.

  • Jog

    To vibrate a stack of finished pages so that they are tightly aligned for final trimming.

  • Jogger

    Vibrating, sloping platform that evens up the edges of stacks of paper.

  • Kerning

    The narrowing of space between two letters so that they become closer and take up less space on the page.

  • Keying

    The use of symbols, usually letters, to code copy that will appear on a dummy.

  • Kraft

    A coarse unbleached paper used for printing and industrial products.

  • Lacquer

    A clear gloss coating applied to printed material for strength, appearance and protection.

  • Laid Finish

    A parallel lined paper that has a handmade look.

  • Laminate

    Laminate is a protective transparent film that is applied to paper by heat and pressure.

  • Landscape

    horizontal page orientation where the width is greater than the height.

  • Laser Engraving

    A paper cutting technique whereby laser technology is utilized to cut away certain unmasked areas of the paper. The cutting is a result of the exposure of the paper to the laser ray, which actually evaporates the paper.

  • Lay Edge

    Edge of a sheet of paper being fed into a printing press.

  • Layout

    A rendition that shows the placement of all the elements, roughs, thumbnails etc., of the final printed piece before it goes to print.

  • Leaders

    The dots or dashes used in type to guide the eye from one set of type to the next.

  • Leading

    Space between lines of type; the distance in points between one baseline and the next.

  • Leaf

    One of a number of folds (each containing two pages) which comprises a book or manuscript.

  • Ledger Paper

    A stiff heavy business paper generally used for keeping records.

  • Length

    The optimum length of a filament of ink.

  • Letterpress

    Printing that utilizes inked raised surfaces to create the image.

  • Letterspacing

    The addition of space between typeset letters.

  • Line Copy

    Any copy that can be reproduced without the use of halftone screens.

  • Linen

    A paper that emulates the look and texture of linen cloth.

  • Lithography

    The process of printing that utilizes flat inked surfaces to create the printed images.

  • LPI

    LPI is lines per inch.

  • M weight

    The actual weight of 1000 sheets of any given size of paper.

  • Make Ready

    Process of adjusting final plate on the press to fine tune or modify plate surface.

  • Margin

    Imprinted space around edge of page.

  • Mark-up

    To write up instructions, as on a dummy.

  • Match Print

    Photographic proof made from all color flats and form composite proof showing color quality as well as accuracy, layout, and imposition before plates are made.

  • Matte Finish

    A coated paper finish that goes through minimal calendaring. Reference, calendaring.

  • Measure

    The width of type as measured in picas. Reference, picas.

  • Midtone Dot

    Commonly taken as the area between highlight and shadow area of a subject's face in halftone image.

  • Natural

    A term to describe papers that have a color similar to that of wood; also called cream, off-white or ivory.

  • Negative

    Film that contains the same images as the original print, except that all colors and shades are reversed. Reference, positive.

  • Newsprint

    A light, low cost groundwood paper made especially for newspapers. Reference, groundwood.

  • OBC

    Outside back cover.

  • Oblong

    A term used to describe printed books, catalogs etc., that are bound on their shorter side; also referred to as album bound.

  • OFC

    Outside front cover.

  • Offset

    The most commonly used printing method, whereby the printed material does not receive the ink directly from the printing plate but from an intermediary cylinder called a blanket which receives the ink from the plate and transfers it to the paper.

  • Offset Paper

    A term for uncoated book paper.

  • Onionskin

    A light bond paper used for typing and used with carbon paper because of its thinness.

  • Opacity

    Quality of papers that defines its opaqueness or ability to prevent two-sided printing from showing through.

  • Opaque

    A quality of paper that allows relatively little light to pass through.

  • Opaque Ink

    Ink that completely covers any ink under itself.

  • Over Run

    Surplus of copies printed.

  • Overlay

    A transparent sheet placed over artwork, in register with the work it covers; this is used to call out other color components of the work, instructions or corrections.

  • Overprinting

    Any printing that is done on an area that has already been printed.

  • Page

    One side of a leaf.

  • Paperboard

    Any paper with a thickness (caliper) of 12 points (.3mm) or more.

  • Parchment

    A hard finished paper that emulates animal skin; used for documents, such as awards, that require writing by hand.

  • Paste-up

    Preparation of positive materials into a layout for photographing to film negatives.

  • Perf Marks

    Markings usually dotted lines at edges showing where perforations should occur.

  • Perfect Binding

    Binding process where backs of sections are cut off, roughened and glued together, and rung in a cover.

  • Perforating

    Punching small holes or slits in a sheet of paper or cardboard to facilitate tearing along a desired line.

  • Photostat

    A photographic print creating an image using photography and electrostatic processes; also called a stat.

  • Pica

    Standard of measurement, 1/6 inch. 1 pica = 12 points 72 points = 1 inch

  • Plastic Comb

    A method of binding books whereby holes are drilled on the side closest the spine, and a plastic grasping device is inserted to hold the pages together.

  • Plate

    Reproduction of type or cuts in metal, plastic, rubber, or other material, to form a plate bearing a relief, planographic or intaglio printing surface.

  • Platemaking

    Making a printing plate from a film or flat including preparation of the plate surface, sensitizing, exposing through the flat, developing or processing, and finishing.

  • PMS

    PMS stand for Pantone Matching System, an ink matching system to produce a specific ink color. If PMS color is required in addition to process colors there is an increase in cost to the job. Many (but not all) PMS colors can be made from process colors reducing cost of the job. To see which PMS colors can be matched with process colors see the pantone matching tint guide number 2006 available in any art store or ordered from Pantone on their website at www.pantone.com

  • Point

    A measurement unit equal to 1/72 of an inch. 12 points to a pica, 72 points to an inch.

  • Positive

    Film that contains an image with the same tonal values as the original; opposite of a negative.

  • Ppi

    Pixels per inch.

  • Press-Proof

    Actual press sheet to show image, tone values and colors as well as imposition of frame or press-plate.

  • Primary Colors

    In printing the four primary colors are cyan (blue), magenta (red), yellow and black.

  • Printability

    The quality of papers to show reproduced printed images.

  • Process Inks

    Printing inks, usually in sets of four colors. The most frequent combination is yellow, magenta, cyan, and black, which are printed, one over another in that order, to obtain a colored print with the desired hues, whites, blacks, and grays.

  • Process Printing

    Printing from two or more half tones to produce intermediate colors and shades.

  • Proof

    Impression from composed type or blocks, taken for checking and correction, from a lithographic plate to check accuracy of layout, type matter, tone and color reproduction.

  • Rag paper

    Papers with a complete or partial content of cotton fibers.

  • Ream

    500 sheets of paper.

  • Reducer

    Any substance that softens and reduces the tack of ink.

  • Register

    The arrangement of two or more images in exact alignment with each other.

  • Register Marks

    Any crossmarks or other symbols used on layout to assure proper registration.

  • Right Angle Fold

    A term that denotes folds that are 90 degrees to each other.

  • Runability

    A term used to describe how well a paper runs on a printing press.

  • Running Head

    A title at the top of a page that appears on all pages of a book or chapter of a book.

  • Saddle Stitching

    Stitching where the wire staples pass through the spine from the outside and are clinched in the center. Only used with folded sections, either single sections or two or more sections inset to form a single section.

  • Safety Paper

    A paper that shows sign of erasure so that it cannot be altered or tampered with easily.

  • Satin Finish

    A smooth delicately embossed finished paper with sheen.

  • Scaling

    The enlargement or reduction of an image or copy to fit a specific area.

  • Score

    Impressions or cuts in flat material to facilitate bending or tearing.

  • Screened Print

    A photo print made by using a halftone negative; also called a velox.

  • Self Cover

    A cover made out of the same paper stock as the internal sheets.

  • Show Through

    A problem that occurs when the printing on one side of a sheet is seen from the other side.

  • Side Guide

    The guides on the sides of the sheet fed press that position the sheet sideways as the paper is led towards the front guides.

  • Side Stitching

    Stitching where the wire staples pass through the pile of sections or leaves gathered upon each other and are clinched on the underside.

  • Signature (Section)

    Printed sheet (or its flat) that consists of a number of pages of a book, placed so that they will fold and bind together as a section of a book. The printed sheet after folding.

  • Slitting

    A term to describe the process of cutting of printed sheets by the cutting wheels of a printing press.

  • Smoothness

    That quality of paper defined by its levelness which allows for pressure consistency in printing, assuring uniformity of print.

  • Spine

    Back edge of a book.

  • Spiral Bind

    A binding whereby a wire or plastic is spiraled through holes punched along the binding side.

  • Spot Color

    Small area printed in a second color.

  • Spread

    A film image that is larger than the original image to accommodate ink trapping. Reference, trapping

  • Static Neutralizer

    A device on a printing press that minimizes the amount of static build up on paper as it passes through the press.

  • Step And Repeat

    A process of generating multiple exposures by taking an image and stepping it according to a predetermined layout.

  • Stet

    A proofreader's symbol that is usually written in the copy margin, that indicates that the copy, which was marked for correction, should be left as it was.

  • Stock

    A term for unprinted paper or other material to be printed.

  • Strip-In

    To add an element, such as copy that is shot separately, and then stripped into place on a goldenrod flat.

  • Stripping

    Originally, the removal of the photographic emulsion with its image from individual negatives and combining them in position on a glass plate. Now the use of stripfilm materials, and the cutting, attachment, and other operations for assembling. The positioning of positives and negatives on the flat before proceeding to platemaking.

  • Tack

    The adhesive quality of inks.

  • Tag

    A dense, strong paper stock.

  • Tensile Strength

    A paper's ability to withstand pressure.

  • Text

    A high quality printing paper.

  • Thermography

    A printing process whereby slow drying ink is applied to paper and while the ink is still wet, it is lightly dusted with a resinous powder. The paper then passes through a heat chamber where the powder melts and fuses with the ink to produce a raised surface.

  • Ticket Envelope

    Envelopes used mostly for theater tickets, with no other particular usage.

  • Tint

    A halftone screen that contains all the same sized dots.

  • Transparent

    Inks that do not block out the colored inks that they print over, but instead blend with them to create intermediate colors.

  • Trapping

    The process of printing wet ink over printed ink which may be wet or dry.

  • Trim Marks

    Marks placed on the sheet to indicate where to cut the page.

  • Two-sidedness

    The difference in feel and appearance of either side of a sheet of paper due to the papermaking process having a felt and wire side.

  • Up

    A term used to describe how many similar sheets can be produced on a larger sheet; two up, four up, etc.

  • Varnish

    A clear shiny ink used to add gloss to printed pieces. The primary component of the ink vehicle. Reference, vehicle.

  • Vellum

    A finish of paper that is rough, bulky and has a degree of tooth.

  • Vignette

    Fade to white or small decorative design or illustration. A photo or illustration etc., in which the tones fade gradually away until they blend with the surface they are printed on.

  • W&B

    An abbreviation for work and back. Reference, sheetwise.

  • W&T

    An abbreviation for work and turn.

  • Washup

    The procedure of cleaning a particular ink from all of the printing elements (rollers, plate, ink fountain etc.) of a press.

  • Watermark

    A translucent logo that is embossed during the papermaking process while the paper slurry is on the dandy roll. Reference, dandy roll

  • Web Press

    Cylinder printing machine in which the paper is fed from a continuous reel, as opposed to sheet fed.

  • Wire Stitching Or Stapling

    To fasten together sheets, signatures, or sections with wire staples. 3 methods... saddle stitching, side stitching, and stabbing.

  • Wove

    A smooth paper made on finely textured wire that gives the paper a gentle patterned finish.

  • Wrinkles

    The unevenly dried surface of printed inks.

  • Writing Paper

    Another name for bond paper.

  • Xerographic Paper

    Papers made to reproduce well in copy machines and laser printers.